This is the world’s oldest surviving wooden structure: Horyuji, an ancient Japanese temple, built in 607 AD. Horyuji was constructed from Japanese cypress that were roughly 2,000 years old. It has been 1,300 years since the cypress were cut down, and the wood still stands firm. 

Insuring Timber Initiative

Dedicating countless hours to addressing this problem, The Canadian Wood Council is pleased to share our latest report – Insuring Timber  This report is designed to lay out the facts for the insurance and the construction industry.  Perhaps more importantly, this report is designed to produce engagement, provoke thoughts and form partnerships.  We want to get this conversation started on a large scale.

For almost half a century, the Canadian Wood Council (CWC) has been the trusted source of reference for the global audience of architects, engineers, builders, designers, and home owners who believe in the benefits of wood as a natural and renewable building material. The CWC Help Desk offers a number of resources on our Member’s Products to wood professionals and enthusiasts.

Is there a list of glued-laminated timber (glulam) and cross-laminated timber (CLT) manufacturers in Canada?

Canadian Glulam Manufacturers:

Goodlam, Division of Goodfellow Inc.

Nordic Engineered Wood Products

Structurlam Wood Products Ltd.

Western Archrib

Art Massif Structure De Bois

Fraser Wood Industries Ltd.

Canadian CLT Manufacturers:

Nordic Engineered Wood Products

Structurlam Wood Products Ltd.

Guardian Structures


Kalesnikoff mass timber

Where can I find information on permanent wood foundations (PWFs)?

The earliest PWF’s were constructed in the Prairies over 50 years ago and are still in use today. Click here for more information

The most current guidance related to the design, construction, and specification of PWFs is found in the 2014 edition of CSA S406 ‘Specification of permanent wood foundations for housing and small buildings’.

CWC also publishes ‘Permanent Wood Foundations’, which provides additional design guidance, selection tables, and construction details. Please note that this publication was produced in 1997 and conforms to CSA S406-92, which is not the most recent version of CSA S406. CWC will be releasing an updated version of ‘Permanent Wood Foundations’ in 2016. Please visit our webstore should you wish to purchase this or any other publications.

Wood Preservation Canada is a member of the Canadian Wood Council, and their staff is very knowledgeable on pressure treated wood products.

If your wood foundation has flooded, it is suggested to dry out the moist wood as quickly as possible and, if necessary, wash with soap and water (not bleach or oxidizing agents) to remove any sediment or fungi deposits.

Where can I find information about preventative techniques to be used during construction which would aid in minimize shrinkage or moisture issues in wood construction?

If you are looking to quickly determine the amount of shrinkage occurring in your structure, Cecobois, a special project of the Canadian Wood Council has created an online tool for calculating the shrinkage of wood structures.

There are a number of resources pertaining to shrinkage and managing moisture of wood-frame buildings available on our website:

Moisture and Wood Frame Buildings

Managing Moisture and Wood

Vertical Movement in Wood Platform Frame Construction – Basics

Vertical Movement in Wood Platform Frame Construction – Movement Prediction

Vertical Movement in Wood Platform Frame Construction – Design and Detailing

In order to avoid problems with the movement in a wood-frame structure, the following is suggested to the builder:

  1. Plan carefully.
  2. Have the material delivered as close to the installation date as possible.
  3. Use proper storage and handling techniques.
  4. Store wood products in a dry, well drained area.
  5. Keep the wood products covered until ready to use.
  6. Use appropriate construction sequencing.
  7. Install the roof sheathing and roof membrane on quickly.
  8. Allow sufficient time for the materials to dry if they have been wetted.
  9. Avoid closing in walls that have wet materials.
  10. Specify wood products that are as close as possible in moisture content to the expected equilibrium moisture content of the end use.

Which Canadian wood species combination does Western Red Cedar, Eastern White Cedar, and/or Eastern Hemlock fall under?

Western Red Cedar, Eastern White Cedar, and Eastern Hemlock all fall under the Canadian wood species category known as Northern Species. The most up to date information available on the standard grading rules for Canadian lumber is available through the National Lumber Grades Authority. The NLGA publishes a document which is available for free download on their website. The free document provides a list of common species combinations with the individual species included in them on page 9.

I am an international buyer and would like to purchase Canadian wood products.

For any inquiries related to importing Canadian wood products, you should contact Canada Wood, as they are the agency that is responsible for assisting international buyers and sellers of Canadian wood products.

Where can I find information on hardwood flooring?

The Canadian Wood Council does not represent hardwood lumber manufacturers. Here are some resources that you may wish to contact for further assistance:

The Canadian Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association

National Wood Flooring Association

Canadian Hardwood Bureau

Can the Canadian Wood Council perform or verify a structural design?

The Canadian Wood Council does not provide engineering consulting services. If you are looking for engineers or contractors that specialize in wood design or construction, we suggest contacting a local Wood Works! Technical Advisor. From the WoodWorks website, select an appropriate region and go through the contact list until a technical advisor is found.

How does one design using wood I-joists, laminated veneer lumber (LVL), laminated strand lumber (LSL), and/or parallel strand lumber (PSL)?

I-joists, LVL, LSL, PSL are all proprietary engineered wood products. The design and installation of proprietary products are the responsibility of individual manufacturers, and they should be contacted for information on their products.

I am looking to have some lumber graded for use in construction – what do I do?

Please contact either the National Lumber Grades Authority or the Canadian Lumber Standards Accreditation Board for guidance on how to find a local lumber grading agency.

What are the equivalent lumber species between Canada and the United States?

The NLGA Standard Grading Rules for Canadian Lumber incorporates the National Grading Rules for Dimension Lumber, a uniform set of grade descriptions and other requirements for softwood dimension lumber that form a required part of all softwood lumber grading rules in the United States. Thus, all dimension lumber throughout Canada and the United States is graded to uniform requirements.

For engineering design in Canada, CSA O86 Engineering Design in Wood recognizes certain US species combinations as being equivalent to Canadian species combinations for the purposes of determining design values. As per Clause and Table of the CSA O86-14, US Douglas Fir-Larch is considered equivalent to Canadian Douglas Fir – Larch and US Hem-Fir is considered equivalent to Canadian Hem-Fir.